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General experimental reactor operation

Chemical reactor operation, experiments carried out smoothly. Understand reactions possible problems before the experiment, to be prepared, during the course of experiments, observe, experiment, proper handling of samples, waste, waste water, cleaning equipment, make a record. Proper operation, accidents can be avoided.
     (1) when it encounters a dangerous or unsafe operation: always consider safer operations, instead of dangerous operations with safe operation.
       in solvent, for example, give priority to the less toxic ethanol, acetone, petroleum ether; safer dichloromethane, ethanol instead of the highly toxic benzene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and so on.
       produce oxygen in the laboratory using a more secure method of hydrogen peroxide in place of potassium chlorate.
       a lot of labs using any mercury mixed; in fact, Silicon oil (or other lubricants) needle-grinding sealed mixing good sealing performance and security, modification of the cylinder are easy.
      (2) reactor mixing evenly, preventing local reactions: some backlash, if not to stir, heat accumulation in the local, local reaction is rapid, violent, and dangerous. Control this reaction, preferably using high speed stirring and external cooling.
      (3) control temperature: hotter, faster response. Each 10 degree increase, the reaction rate is about twice times. General solvent (boiling point-fixed), the reaction is limited to near the boiling point of the solvent. In addition, the feeding speed, cold and other means to control temperature.
      (4) Note-induced reaction after normal charging: many reactions, especially organic reactions, material mix, even if the heating, did not immediately react, but react very strong, easily lead to accidents. For this type of reaction, most controlled feeding, feeding a small amount, heating induced reaction. If there is no response, not a lot of feed, only add a small amount of material until the induced reaction, normal again slowly feed the continuous reaction.
      (5) the process, pay close attention to observe and record the reaction: many responses, before the accident, are threatened, such as an increase in temperature, pressure, take white smoke and so on, many people with experience, observations in a timely manner, avoiding, or already prepared measures in hand. Found danger threatened, urgent measures could be taken, such as turn off the heat, cooling, internal water cooling with ice, add to the reaction temperature and so on.
      (6) operations must pay attention to not let harmful gases: recirculation cooling back to absorb the absorption. Attention to the efficiency of condensing and absorption efficiency. Security closed operations, instead of the opening operation.
       such as the General test preparation textbooks is mixing of methanol with red phosphorus, add a small amount of iodine back, then batching, during the charging process, open the stopper and highly toxic products (boiling point: 42 ℃) will escape, this is unsafe operations. If the return flows containing iodine feeder, iodine solution down the reaction, is much more reasonable.
      (7) response if gas, care must be taken to stop reaction time, draw up problems may occur; a timely opening the connecting pipe or buffer the bottle.